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Armorial Gold's Heraldry Dictionary

This heraldry dictionary is based on the works of Elvin (edited by Marvin Beatty) from his original manuscript of 1879. Corrections have been made, and additions from the Armorial Gold Library have been added. You are welcome to use this heraldry dictionary as a reference tool without fee. This is copyrighted material and as such may not be reproduced in "any way" without the expressed written permission of Armorial Gold. Thank You for your Cooperation.
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Heraldry Dictionary Section C

Cable. The rope affixed to an anchor.

Caboshed, Caeoched, Cabossed or Cabosed. Terms to express the heads of Deer, Bulls, Goats, etc., when cut off and set full faced, without any part of the neck being left. Cabossed does not apply to a Leopard's face.

Cabre, Effray or Forcene. Terms applied to a horse rising on its hind legs.

Cadency or Differencing. Marks of Distinction by which different members and branches of a family are distinguished. Cadency or Differencing (effected in the early days of Coat Armour; By changing the tincture of the field - By changing the tincture of the charges - By dividing the shield by different lines of partition - By diminishing the number of the principal figures (very rare) - By altering their position - By surrounding the original charges with a bordure - all these modes have fallen into disuse. See Label.

Cadet. A junior member or branch of a family.

Caduceus or Mercury's Mace, or Wand; termed sometimes Snaky-staff, and Mercury's Soporiferous Rod. The emblem of peace. It is frequently borne with a cap (called the Petasus) on the top of the staff.

Caffar. Negro, Moor, etc. in Heraldry are depicted in the same way.

Caldron. A metal kettle, or boiler.

Calthrop. See Galtrap.

Caltrap, Caltrop, Cheval-Trap or Galtrap. See Galtrap.

Camail. A small kind of Mantle, it hung down from the Basinet and covered the Mail to the neck and shoulders. Same as Contoise.

Camel. A Camel and Camel's head are borne by many families.

Cameleon. When blazoned ppr. is coloured pale green. The Cameleon is the emblem of inconstancy.

Camelopard. May appropriately be borne by those who have distinguished themselves in Africa.

Camelopardel. Is like the Camelopard but with two long horns curved backwards.

Camomile. A plant.

Camp, Compon or Campone. See Componée, or Gobony.

Campaned or Campanes. Bells pendent from a fesse, bar, or file are termed Campaned; the number must be named.

Canary. A bird.

Cancer. See Crab.

Candle-Extinguisher. A hollow conical utensil to put on a candle to extinguish it.

Candlesticks. Also termed Taper Candlestick. A utensil to hold a candle.

Canelle. The same as invecked, or invected.

Cannet. A duck without feet or beak.

Cannon. Is always understood to be mounted. See Culverin and a Ship Gun Carriage with ordnance mounted.

Cannoned.  Bells are said to be cannoned when the tongues are of a different tincture to the bell. See Bells.

Canopy or Stall. As in the arms of the See of Tuam.

Canting Arms. See Allusive Arms.

Canton. One of the Sub-Ordinaries, and is always understood to occupy the dexter-chief of the escutcheon, unless termed a Sinister Canton, and to possess only the third part of the Chief.

Canton of St. George. Is a silver canton charged with a red-cross. This is sometimes blazoned a Canton of the Red Cross.

Cantoned or Cantonnee. The same as between.

Cantoned-Bar. That is a bar cantoned in the same manner as a Cantoned-Fesse.

Cantoned-Fesse or Fesse Cantoned. Is a fesse joined to a canton. When borne of the same metal or colour, should be united without any division.

Cantoned-Lambeaux or Lambbeaux Cantoned. A term to express one or more of the feet of the label when charged with a canton.

Cap-a-pie. i.e. completely armed from head to foot.

Cap. Various descriptions of Caps are found in Armoury. Also the cap of velvet which covers the head within the rim, or circle of the crown, as that of Peers.

Cap of Dignity or Maintenance. Also termed a Ducipher. See Chapeau.

Caparisoned. A term to express a War-horse completely accoutred, or armed for the field.

Capital. The head of a column.

Cappeline. See Lambrequin.

Capon. A cock without wattles, etc.

Carbuncle. See Escarbuncle.

Card. The four ace cards.

Card. A Wool-card.

Cardinal's Cap or Hat. Cardinal's Hat is red; the Archbishops of France bear a hat of this description over their arms, but it's colour is vert, and it has only four rows of tassels; Abbots bear the same sable with three rows of tassels.

Careering or Cariering. Applied to a horse in a position of a lion saliant.

Carnat. Flesh coloured.

Carnation or Pink. A flower.

Carp. A fish.

Carpenter's-Compasses. An instrument consisting of two pointed legs or branches joined at the top.

Cartouche. An oval shield.

Casque. A helmet, generally without a visor.

Cassowary. See Emu.

Casterense Crown. See Crown Palisado.

Castle. The emblem of safety. If the cement is of a different tincture from the Castle itself, it must be named, and the castle is said to be masoned of such a tincture. The Windows and Ports, when of a different colour, must be expressed; when supposed to be open, they should be described "voided of the field." When the port is defended by a portcullis it must be named in the blazon.

Cat. The domestic Cat occurs as an Heraldic bearing, borne by Catton, etc.

Cat-a-Mountain or Wild-Cat. The emblem of vigilance and courage.

Caterfoil or Quaterfoil. Four leaved grass.

Catherine-Wheel. So called from St. Catherine whom the pagans attempted to put to death by a wheel of this kind.

Catoose or Scroll. Anciently written scrowle; a Cross Catoose, or Catoosed.

Caude. See Coward.

Caul or Cowl. A Monk's-hood.

Cave. Wild animals are sometimes met with in Coat Armour, represented as issuing from a cave.

Ceckko or Checche. An ancient term for Chequy.

Cedar. An evergreen tree.

Centaur. An imaginary creature representing half a man and half a horse.

Centre or Centre-Point. The middle or fesse point.

Cercele, Cercelee or Recercelee. Applied to a Cross curling at the ends.

Cercle. Within a circle or diadem, or having a diadem.

Ceres. The Goddess of Corn, represented holding a garb of corn in dexter arm and sickle in the sinister hand.

Cerise. A Torteau.

Chabot. A fish.

Chafant. Enraged applied to the wild boar.

Chaffinch. A bird.

Chains are frequently borne in the shield as a charge, or are attached to the Crest or Supporters.

Chained and collared. Animals having a collar with a chain attached are said to be collared and chained.

Chain-shot. Bullets united with a chain. The other example is an Heraldic chain shot, and by old authors called a Murthering Chain shot, borne by Clifford.

Chalice. A Clip.

Chamber-piece. A piece of ordnance without the carriage.

Chame. An annulet with a sharp rising point on one side.

Chamelion. See Camelion.

Chamfrain or Chamfron. Armour for the head of a horse.

Chamois. An animal which inhabits the Alpine mountains.

Champagne, Champaigne, Champain or Champion.Same as Urdée, or Warriated.

Champion. A Knight, or Chevalier, who challenges the combat to avenge the cause of another.

Chape, Boteroll or Bouterolle. The mounting at the bottom of the scabbard.

Chapeau. A cap. Also termed a Ducipher; and cap of maintenance.

Chapeau-de-fer. Same as Morion.

Chapel. As in the arms of Chapel, Lerrier, etc.

Chaperon, Chapourn or Chafferoon. A term applied to the small shields which contain either the Crest, deaths-head, or other device. These are placed on the foreheads of the horses drawing the hearse at funerals, and are so called because they were fastened to the Chaperon, or hood, worn over the heads of the horses, with other state coverings.

Chaperonne, that is Hooded. A Chief Chaperonne.

Chaplet. Garland, or wreath of flowers, laurel, oak, olive, etc. A Chaplet of Roses, in Heraldry, is always composed of four roses and the rest leaves.

Chapournet or Chaperonnet. A chief divided by a curved line, as ar. a chief gu. charged with a Chapournet, or Shapournett erm.

Chappe. To express the field when divided the same as Tierce-in-Mantle.

Chappe. A cross chape, or chappe, is the same as double fitchee.

Chappeau. See Chapeau.

Charboncle. See Escarbuncle.

Charge. In this term is included all kinds of figures whatever they may be, which are in the field of the Escutcheon.

Charged. A term applied to either the shield, or any bearing whatever when any device is placed on it.

Charger. A dish. 

Charlemagne, Crown of. Borne in the arms of five kings of England as arch-treasures of the Holy Roman Empire.

Charnell. Flesh coloured, or ppr.

Chart. See Map.

Chatter or Chatterer. The same as Lark.

Chausse. Shod and denotes a section in base.

Chausse-trap. See Galtrap.

Chausses. Armour for the legs and feet, sometimes of two pieces joined at the knee by garters.

Checky, Checkie, Chequy, Checkered, Chequered, Cheque, Chequee or Checquy. A term to express the field, or any bearing, when divided into small squares of alternate tinctures, and must consist of three or more rows.

Cheeche. Same as Checky.

Checkers. Same as Checky.

Chef or Chefe. See Chief.

Chekere. See Checky.

Chene. An oak.

Cheque. See Checky.

Chequered or Checkered. Covered with rows of Checkers.

Cherub or Angel. A child's head between two wings. A Seraph or Seraphim has three pairs of wings.

Chess-Rook or Chesse-Rook. One of the pieces used in the game of Chess.

Cheval-Trap. See Galtrap.

Chevalier or Knight on Horseback, completely armed. The Crest of Duff. Upon a wreath of the colours, on a horse in full gallop ar. bridled sa. and with mantling gu., semée of escutcheons or, each charged with a lion ramp. of the third, a chevalier armed cap-a-pie, on his helmet his crest viz. a demi lion ramp. gu., in his right and a sword, on his sinister arm, a shield, charged as the escutcheons.

Chevelee. Streaming, i.e. the streams of light issuing from a comet.

Cheveron or Chevron. One of the honourable ordinaries, and occupies one third of the field, as Ar. a chev. gu. Diminutives of the chev., are frequently met with, and, when placed at equal distances from each other, are blazoned Cheveronels, as, or three chevronels gu. If borne in pairs they are termed Couple-close, and when a chev. is placed between them, it may be blazoned either a chev. betw. two couple-closes, or a chev. cottised.

Chevronelly. See Chevronny.

Chevronel or Cheveronel. A diminutive of the Chevron.

Chevronny, Cheveronny or Cheveronee. A term to express the field or any bearing, when divided into equal parts by lines in the form of chevrons, the number of pieces must be named.

Cheveonways or Cheveronwise. When figures or charges are placed in the position of the chevron.

Chevin. See Chub.

Chewerond. A Cheveron.

Cheyne. See Chene.

Cheynyd. Same as Chained.

Chief. From the French Chef. Which means the head or uppermost position of the shield. It is one of the honourable Ordinaries and occupies one third of the upper part of the field. Gu. a Chief or. The Arms of Hampstead. The Chief may be of any of the forms of lines used in heraldry. When the Chief is Charged with any figure, in blazon it is said to be "On a Chief". But when any charge is placed in the upper part of the shield, in the place of the Chief it is said to be "In Chief."

Chief Points. The Chief, or upper part of the shield contains three points, viz. the Dexter chief point; the middle chief point; and Sinister chief point.

Child's Head. Couped enwrapped about the neck with a snake.

Chimera. A fabulous beast.

Chimerical. A term applied to any imaginary figure.

Chipping Axe. See Axe.

Chisel or Chizzel. A sharp cutting instrument.

Chives-Tipt. Part of a flower sometimes described in Heraldry like the seeds of a rose.

Chough. See Cornish Chough.

Christed-Imbattled. See Imbattled-Christed.

Christiferus. The bearer of the Standard in which was displayed the figure of Christ on the Cross.

Chronel. See Cronel.

Chrystals. Used in blazoning the arms of Peers instead of pearl for Argent.

Chub or Chevin. A Fish.

Church Bell. See Bells.

Cimeter. Same as Scymetar.

Cimier. Crest.

Cinabar or Cinabre. Gules.

Cinctured. Girt, or encircled.

Cinople or Sinople. Vert.

Cinquefoil, Cinqfoil or Quinterfoil. Five leaved grass.

Cinque-foyle. The same as Cinquefoil.

Circle of chains. See Chains.

Circle of Glory. The nimbus or ring of light placed round, or over the head of Saints, etc. The Holy Lamb is always represented with a circle of glory.

Circle of Gold. See Crowns.

Circulet. Coronet, which see.

Circumflexant. Bent, Bowed round, or about.

Citron-tree. Same as Apple Tree.

Civic-Cap. The State Cap of the Lord Mayor of London.

Civic Crown. Wreath or garland composed of oak leaves and acorns.

Clam. An Escallop.

Clarenceux. The title of one of the Kings of Arms.

Clarendon, Claricimbal or Clavecimbal. See Clarion.

Claricord, Clarion or Rest. See Clarion.

Clarine. A term to express a collar of Bells round the necks of beasts, the same as gorged with a collar of bells.

Clarion, Sufflue, Claricord or Rest. This is by some supposed to denote the rest for the lance, but this cannot be the case as Clarions are found in armoury before the rest for the lance was invented. In fact the very name sufflue, and clarion, point to some kind of wind instrument.

Clarionet. A wind instrument.

Clasped. See Conjoined.

Clavecimbal. Same as Clarion.

Claved or Clavied. A cross composed of three double-warded keys, with one bow.

Claymore. A sword, The Highland broadsword.

Cleche, Clechee, Cleschee or Clochee. An ordinary so perforated that the chief substance is taken from it, leaving nothing but the edges.

Cleft. Split.

Cleg-Goose. See Barnacle Goose.

Clenched. See Clinched.

Cleschee. See Cleche.

Climant. A goat in the same position as rampant, is said to be climbing or climant.

Clinched. The hand shut, or grasping anything, is termed clenched.

Clipping. Equivalent to clasping.

Close. A term applied to all birds of flight, when the wings are closed. It also denotes a helmet with the visor down.

Close Couped. Cut off close to the head, no part of the neck being left.

Close-Gauntlets. Gauntlets with immoveable fingers.

Close-Girt. Said of figures habited, whose clothes are tied about the middle.

Close-Sejant. Setting together.

Closet. A diminutive of the bar, being one half its size.

Closetted. The same as Cottised.

Closetty. Barry of many pieces, the number must be named.

Closing-Tongs. A tool used by Founders, and is part of their Crest.

Closs or Closse. See Close.

Clothed. See Vested.

Cloue. Nailed. See Lattised.

Clove. A spice.

Clover. A genus of Trefoil.

Clouds. Very common bearing in Coat Armour, particularly with devices issuing herefrom.

Club and Spiked Club. Frequently borne in the hand of savages.

Cluster. Applied to fruits and flowers growing naturally in clusters.

Clymant. See Climant.

Co-Ambulant. Passant, or walking together.

Coat of Arms or Armorial Bearings. Consist in the shield and its external ornaments. The term Coat of Arms is however more applicable to the surcoat or mantle upon which the armorial bearings were formerly depicted.

Cock. The emblem of vigilance, virility, and bravery. Is always depicted as a Dunghill Cock, if not expressed to the contrary. When the legs, spurs, comb and wattles are of a different tincture from the Cock, or from each other, they must each be expressed. And the Cods is said to be armed, spurred, crested or combed, jelloped, or wattled of such a colour.

Cockatrice or Cockatryce. An imaginary monster, which is depicted with the head, comb, wattles, and legs of the Cock, and the body, wings and tail of a Dragon. A Cockatrice in Christian art is the emblem of sin.

Cocke. A Chess-rook.

Cockers. High shoes. See Brogue.

Cockle-shell. See Escallop.

Cocquel. An Escallop.

Co-erected. Set up together, or erected side by side.

Cod. A Fish.

Codded. Beans, Pease, etc. borne in the Cod, or Pod.

Cœur. The heart. For Semée of hearts the term Semée de Coeur is sometimes used.

Cœur-Point. The Fesse-point.

Coeur, Party in Cœur. An irregular partition, formed by a short line of partition in pale in the centre of the escutcheon, which extends but a little way, much short of the top and bottom, and is there met by other lines.

Cognisance, Cognizance or Cognicanze. See Badge.

Coif de mailles. A hood which wraps round the neck and head.

Coins. The Heraldry that may be learned from British and Foreign Coins is of the utmost value, since it is always historically correct.

Coiled. Turned round, or twisted.

Cointise. A covering for the helmet. See Contoise.

Cokke. Ancient orthography for Cock.

Collar. An ornament for the neck, worn by Knights, such as the Collar of the Garter.

Collar of S.S. The collar of S, or "of Esses," as it is written in many records, was a Lancastrian livery, and of the institution of Henry of Bolingbroke. This Collar is still worn by the Heralds, by the Lord Mayor of London, and by the Lord Chief Justices, and some others of the Judges.

Collared. A term applied to animals, when they have a plain collar round the neck; if a line or chain is attached to the collar, it is termed collared and lined, or chained. If any animal has any kind of Coronet round its neck, it is termed "Gorged."

Collar-Point. The position of a charge when placed between the upper portions of a saltire.

Collateral-Position or Side By Side. The earliest way of placing the arms of a husband and wife was in two separate shields placed by the side of each other.

Collaterally Disposed. Things set side by side; and if erect are termed Co-erectant, or Co-erected.

College of Arms or Herald's College. An ancient Royal Corporation, endowed with certain priviliges by the Kings of this Realm. The Corporation consists of Three Kings of Arms, Six Heralds, and Four Pursuivants. See Herald's College.

Collying. A term used by Falconers to denote the motion of the head made by an eagle or hawk when about to take flight.

Colombs. Doves.

Colorys. See Colours.

Colours. Naval and Military Flags. The colours of the Cavalry are styled "Standards."

Colours. There are seven used in Coat Armour. Gules, Azure, Vert, Sable, Purpure, Sanguine, and Tenne. See Tinctures in the Dictionary or Colours in the Symbolism Library

Colt. A young horse. See Horse.

Columbine. A flower.

Comb. An instrument with teeth.

Comb and Wattles of a Cock. See Cock.

Combatant. Fighting, or Ramp. Face to face.

Combel. See Fillet.

Commixt. Placed indiscriminately, same as Semée.

Community, Arms of. See Arms of Community.

Compartment. A kind of carved ornament, upon which the supporters stand. It is known to Herald-Painters by the term "pedestal." The Label with motto is generally suspended from it.

Compassed or Encompassed. Surrounded.

Complement. A term used to signify the full moon.

Complexed. The serpents in the Caduceus.

Compon. See Camp.

Componed. Same as Gobony.

Componee, Compony, Gobony or Gobone. Said of an Ordinary composed of squares in one row of two tinctures alternately placed. If there be two rows it is called Counter-Compony, or Compony Counter-Company. If there are more than two rows it is termed Cheeky.

Compounded Arms. Arms formed by the Combination of two or more distinct coats, in such a manner as to produce a single composition.

Concaved. Same as Arched.

Concession, Arms of. See Arms of Concession.

Cone. A solid body tapering to a point from a circular base.

Coney. A Rabbit.

Confronte. Facing each other. Combatantn or respecting each other.

Conjoined. Linked together.

Conjoined in Lure. A term applied to wings, joined together, with the tips downwards.

Conjunct. Same as Conjoined or connected.

Conspicuous or Conspictiant. Terms anciently used to express any bearing or charee conspicuously placed over another.

Contoise. A scarf, worn loose and flowing, attached to the helm with the crest, but discontinued after the middle of the fourteenth century.

Contourne. A term applied to animals turned towards the sinister.

Contra. Contrary. See Contre.

Contra-Nuage. Same as Counter-Scallopee, or Papellonnée.

Contrary Coonyed. An ancient term for Gyronny.

Contrary Bowed. Bending in a contrary direction.

Contrary Composed. Contrary placed or opposite each other.

Contrary Debruised. Is the bowing and embowing of serpents, when the head or tail turns under in a contrary direction one to the other.

Contrary Flexed. Bent in opposite directions.

Contrary Imbowed or Embowed. See Counter Embowed.

Contrary Invecked. When the upper and under parts are both invecked.

Contrary Posed. Placed opposite, or opposed to each other.

Contrary Reflexed. Turning in a contrary direction.

Contrary Urdée. When the upper and under parts are both Urdée.

Contre or Counter. Applied to animals as Counter passant. Also to ordinaries when the upper and under parts are the same.

Contre-Bretesse. Embattled.

Contre-Changed. Same as Counter-Changed.

Contre-Compone. Same as Compony Counter-Compony.

Contre-Ermine. Same as Ermines.

Contre-Escartele. Same as Counter Quartered.

Contre-Face. Same as barre per pale counter changed.

Contre-Pale. Same as paly of six per-fesse counter changed.

Contre-Pointe. When two chev. meet in fesse point.

Contre-Pose. Counterplaced or opposite each other.

Contre-Potent. Same as Counter Potent.

Contre-Trevis. An ancient term for party per fesse.

Contre-Vaire. Same as Counter Vair.

Convex or Convexed. Bowed, or arched.

Cooped. See Couped.

Coorlet. See Cuirass.

Coot. A water-fowl.

Coppée, Copped or Coppedee. See chev. double downset, coppée, or Rompu.

Copper. An instrument used by wiredrawers and borne in the arms of their company.

Copper Cake. A Pellet, or Roundle depicted copper colour.

Coracle. A boat made of a wicker frame covered with the hide of a beast.

Corbie, Corbeau or Corbie-Crow. A Raven.

Corded. Banded with cords.

Cordon. Cords or strings with tassels.

Corled. See Coiled.

Cormorant. A bird.

Corner Caps. See Cap.

Cornet. A musical instrument.

Cornish Chough. A species of Crow with red legs.

Cornucopia. The horn of Plenty represented as overflowing with corn, fruit, etc.

Coronal. See Cronel.

Coronated. Adorned with a Coronet.

Coronet. A species of velvet cap, turned up with ermine, and surrounded by a circle of gold, by the various forms of which latter the degree of the wearer is denoted.

I. Coronet of the Prince of Wales, is composed of a circle of gold richly chased; on the edge four crosses pattée between as many fleur-de-lis; from the two centre crosses an arch, surmounted with a mound and cross, the whole adorned with pearls; within the coronet, a crimson cap, turned up ermine.

II. Younger Sons of Her Majesty, a circle of go!d richly chased having upon its upper edge, four crosses pattée and fleur-de-lis, a crimson cap, turned up ermine with a gold tassel at top.

III. The Princess Royal, and Younger Sisters; the same as the last, but with two crosses pattée, four fleur-de-lis, and two strawberry leaves.

IV. Nephews of the Blood Royal; differs from the Young Sons by having crosses pattée and strawberry leaves placed alternately.

V. Duke,is composed of a circle of gold richly chased (not jewelled), with eight strawberry leaves of equal height, above the rim, a cap of crimson velvet, turned up ermine; on the top a gold tassel.

VI. Marquess;like the preceding, but with four strawberry leaves and as many pearls, upon short points all of equal height, with cap and tassel as before.

VII. Earl;is the same, heightened up with eight long points; on the top of which are as many pearls, the interstices being adorned with strawberry leaves, whose apices do not raise so high as the points.

VIII. Viscount; is a circle of gold richly chased with cap etc. as above, having sixteen pearls on the rim, seven of which only appear in the representation.

IX. Baron; is composed of a plain circle of gold, supporting six pearls, four of which are seen in the drawing; cap, etc. This coronet, first granted by Charles II, before whose time the Barons wore a scarlet cap turned up ermine and on the top a tassel of gold.

Coronet Ducal.See Ducal Coronet.

Coronet Eastern, Mural and Naval, etc. See Crowns.

Coronets of the French Nobility. See France Coronets of.

Coronette.Adorned with a coronet.<

Corporate Bodies, Arms of.See Arms of Community.

Cost. A diminutive of the bend, one fourth of its breadth. When borne in pairs are called cottises.

Cote-Armure. The coat or vesture on which the arms were exhibited.

Cote-Hardie.A Surcoat.

Cotice or Couste.A diminutive of the bend; also a French term to express an escutcheon divided bendways into many equal parts; the same as bendy.

Coticed, Cotised, Cottised or Cotized. A term to express the diminutives of the Bend, Chevron, Fesse, and Pale. When one of these diminutives is borne on each side its proper Ordinary, that Ordinary is blazoned Cottised. If two are borne on each side, it is termed double cottised. If three, treble cottised. If Cottises are borne without the ordinary, their number must be named, and they are blazoned by the terms Barrulet, Couple-close, Endorse, etc.

Cotoye. Same as Cottised.

Cottise.See Cost and Coticed.

Cottised, Cotticed or Cotized. See Coticed.

Cottize. Same as Cost.

Couchant, Couche or Couched. Lying down, applied to Lions, Tigers, etc.

Coue or Couee. Coward; a Lion or other beast having his tail between his hind legs.

Coulombs. Doves.

Coulter.Run through the calf of a man's leg, is borne in the arms of Ball.

Counter.When applied to two animals it signifies that they are turned in contrary directions, as two lions counter passant. When applied to ordinaries it denotes that the upper and under parts are the same, as a bend embattled counter embattled.

Counter-Barre.A term to express bend sinister per bend counter-changed.

Counter-Barry or Contrefasce. The same as Barry per pale counter-changed.

Counter-Battled.Embattled on both sides.

Counter-Bendy. Same as Contre-Bande.

Counter-Billettee. A division of the field, ordinary, or charge, by lines crossing each other, so as to form the compartments into the shape of billets, as a Bend billettée counter-billettée.

Counter-Camp or Campee. The same as Counter-Gobony.

Counterchanged. When the shield or any bearing is divided into two or more parts, each part having some charge upon it, which is of the alternate tincture.

Counter-Cartele or Contrecartele. Also termed contraquadripartitus; the same as counter-quartered, or quarterly quartered; that is, when the grand quarters are quartered.

Counter-Cheveronny. A division cheveronways.

Counter-Colerys or Golorys.The same as Counterchanged.

Counter-Coloured.See Counterchanged.

Counter-Componee or Gobony. Consists of two rows of chequers.

Counter-Couchant. When animals are lying with their heads in contrary directions.

Counter-Courrant. Animals running in contrary directions.

Counter-Debruised.When either the head or tail of a serpent, in the bowing, or embowing, is turned under, in a contrary direction one to the other.

Counter-Embattled, Imbattled or Battled. When both top and bottom are embattled.

- Embowed.When the arm is bent with the elbow towards the sinister.

- Embowed.Bent contrary ways one to another

- Escartele.See Counter-Cartele.

- Faced or contreface.Same as barry per pale counterchanged.

- Fleury or Counter-fleurie. See Counter-Flory.

- Flory, Counter-Fleury, contre-fleure or contrefleuronne. When the edges of anything are charged with fleur-de-lis, alternately placed

- Flowered or Flurty. Same as Counter-Flory or Floretty.

- Gobony.Same as Counter-Compony.

- Naiant. Fishes swimming in opposite directions.

- Nebulee. When both edges of a Fesse, Bend, etc., are nebuled.

- Paled.Is when the escutcheon is divided into pales parted per-fesse, the two colours being counterchanged so that the upper and lower are of different colours.

- Passant.Walking in contrary directions.

- Pendant. Hanging on each side.

- Pointed. Same as counter-point.

- Potent. One of the Furs. Also termed Cuppa.

- Potente Quartered or Quarterly Quartered. Also termed Contre-Cartele. Same as Counter-Escartele. See Counter-Cartele.

- Raguled. Raguled on both sides.

Counter-Salient or Contre-Saillant. When two animals are borne, leaping contrary ways from each other.

Counter-Scallopee or Scalloped. Covered with escallop-shells, laid like the scales of fish.

Counter-Trippant or Tripping. A term applied to all animals of the deer kind when walking in opposite directions.

Counter-Vair, Vairy or Verry. One of the Furs.

Counterly. A term used by some authors to express the field divided into two equal parts; the same as party per pale, or per-pale.

Countess. The title and rank of the wife of an Earl, she is styled "My Lady" is "Right Honourable" and her Coronet the same as her husband's.

Coupee. The same as Couped.

Coupee-Closk. Same as Couple-Close.

Coupe Parted or Couped Biparted. When anything is cut off, or notched, shewing two projecting pieces; but contrary to what is called erased, which is jagged by being torn off.

Couped or Coupy. A term to express the head or limbs of men, animals, or any charge when evenly cut off.

Coupe or Coupee. See Couped.

Couple. Used instead of pair.

Couple-Close. A diminutive of the cheveron and always borne in pairs.

Coupled. A term applied to charges borne in pairs, joined or linked together.

Coupy. See Couped.

Courant, Cursant or Current. Terms for a horse, buck, greyhound, etc. borne running, they are also said to be in full course.

Courbe. Embowed.

Courlett. Same as Cuirass.

Courone or Couronne. Crowned.

Coursant. Same as Courant. 

Course. In his, or in course. See Courant.

Courtesy, Title of. A nominal degree of Rank, conceeded by Royal Grace and sanctioned by usage to some of the children of the Peers. The term is especially applicable to the "Second Titles" of their Fathers, that are thus borne by "Courtesy" by the eldest sons of Dukes, Marquesses, and Earls.

Courvune. Ducally crowned.

Cousu or Cousue. According to Edmondson the same as Rempli. By others used to express any of the ordinaries when borne of metal with metal, or colour with colour.

Couteau-Sword. A Knife sword.

Coutel. A military implement which served both for a knife and a dagger.

Coutere. A piece of armour which covered the elbow.

Couvert. Shadowed, or partly covered with the foot of hangings or tapestry.

Covered. A term applicable to any bearing with a cover, as a covered cup.

Covert. Partly covered.

Covertant. When charges are borne side by side, so that part of one is seen projecting before the other; they are termed Covertait, or Co-erectant.

Cowd. See Coward.

Coward, Cowardised or Cowardly. Applied to lions, etc., when the tail is represented hanging down and passing between the hind legs.

Cowl. A Monk's hood.

Crab. A shell-fish.

Crabbet. See Habick.

Cramp or Crampoon. An iron bent at each extremity used for the purpose of strengthening buildings, and are generally borne in pairs.

Crampette, Crampit, Chape or Boteroll. The steel mounting at the bottom of the scabbard.

Crampoon. See Cramp.

Crancelin. The chaplet that crosses the shield of Saxony, as in the arms of the Prince of Whales.

Crane. A bird with long neck and legs.

Crawling, Gliding or Creeping. As a serpent gliding.

Crawfish, Crefish or Crevice. A fish represented like a shrimp. Not to be blazoned hauriant as fish that have fins but upright.

Creneaux or Emmanche. Terms for Embattled or Crenellée.

Crenella or Crenellee. Embattled or Kernelled.

Crenellated. Same as Embattled.

Crequer Plant or Crequier. The wild plum. By some it is termed "seven-branched candlestick of the temple." Crequer plant of seven branches eradicated, as borne by the family of Girflet.

Crescent. A half-moon with the horns turned upwards. If the horns are turned towards the dexter, it is termed an increscent. If the horns are to the sinister, a decrescent. When the horns are turned down it is termed a crescent reversed.

Crescented. A cross having a crescent at each end.

Cresset or Cressi. A Fire-Beacon.

Crest. Named by the French Cimier, from Cime, the top or apex; by the Italians Cimiero; by the Latins, Crista, the comb of a cock. A figure set upon a wreath, coronet, or chapeau, placed above the Helmet. The manner of placing the Crest differs according to the rank of the bearer. By all below the Peerage, it is placed above the Helmet, the latter rests on the shield. Peers carry the coronet on the shield, and the Helmet and Crest above; but in both cases the Helmet very frequently is altogether omitted. Ladies are not entitled to wear Crests. But as an appendage to sepulchral monuments Crests are placed beneath the head of the armed effigy; are attached to the helmet, or are carved at the feet of the recumbent figures.

Crest-Coronet. See Ducal-Coronet.

Crested. A term used for the comb of a Cock, Cockatrice, etc.

Crevice. See crawfish.

Cri-de-guerre. War-cry; termed by the Scots slughorn, or Slogan; any sentence, or word becoming a general cry throughout the army on its approach to battle.

Crimean Medal. Is silver, the ribbon blue with yellow edges; separate clasps for Alma, Balaklava, Inkerman, Sebastopol. See Medal.

Crined. When the hair of a man, or woman, or the mane of a horse, Unicorn, etc., are borne of a different tincture, from the other part, they are termed Crined of such a metal, or colour.

Cripping Irons or Glazier's Cripping Irons. Same as Glazier's Nippers.

Crocodile. A genus of the saurian animals.

Croches. Little knobs about the tops of a Deer's horn.

Crochet-Hook. Used in a kind of netting.

Croisade. See Crusades.

Croissans. Crescents.

Croissant Contourne. The decrescent.

Cronel, Cronet, Coronet or Coronal. The iron end of a jousting lance, terminating in three points.

Crook. A Shepherd's staff.

Crose or Grose. A drawing board, an instrument used by coopers, and is borne as art of their armorial ensign.

Crosier or Bishop's Staff. Also termed Croysee. (The Pastoral Staff erroneously called a Crosier is similar to a Shepherd's Crook.)

Cross. One of the honourable ordinaries, occupying a third of the shield. The Cross is subject to all the accidental forms of lines, as Indented, Engrailed, Eaguly, etc.

Crossed. Charges borne crossways, or in the form of a cross.

Crossys or Croysys. See Cross.

Cross Bow. An ancient weapon. Also termed an Arbelete or Arbalist.

Cross-Staff. A rule.

Crosswise or In Cross. Charges placed in the form of a cross, five being the usual number.

Crotchet. A note in music.

Crouch or Crowche. A cross.

Crow. A bird remarkable for its gregarious and predatory habits.

Crow-Cornish. See Cornish Chough.

Crown. Crowns were not originally marks of Sovereignty, but were bestowed by the Greeks on those who gained a prize at the public games. At first they were only bands, or fillets, but subsequently assumed various forms according to the peculiar feat of valour the person, to whom they were granted had per-formed.

Crown. When borne as a charge if not named to the contrary is generally drawn as a Ducal Coronet. Of the Sovereign of Great Britain. Is a circle of gold richly chased ornamented with pearls and stones, and heightened up with four crosses pattée, and four fleur-de-lis alternately; from these rise four archdiadems, adorned with pearls, which close under a mound ensigned by a cross pattée, within the coronet a crimson cap, turned up Ermine. Of the Prince of Wales, etc. See Coronet. Celestial. A gold rim adorned with eight rays surmounted with small stars, five only of the rays are seen in the drawing. Civic or Wreath. A garland composed of oak-leaves and acorns. The Corona Civica was among the Romans, the highest military reward, assigned to him who had preserved the life of a citizen. It bore the inscription " Ob civem ser-vatum." Ducal. See Ducal Coronet. Eastern or Antique Crown. A gold rim with eight rays, of which five only are seen. It is given to British subjects who have distinguished themselves in the East. Mural or Mural Coronet. Corona muralis; is a coronet with pinnacles, or battlements erected upon it. It is given to those who have assisted in storming a Fortress. Naval or Naval Coronet. Corona Navalis, is composed of a rim surmounted with the sterns of ships, and sails alternately, and is given to those who have distinguished themselves in the Navy. Obsidional, Corona Obsidionalis. A reward given to him who delivered a besieged town, or a blockaded army. It was made of grass; if possible of such as grew on the delivered place and interwoven with twigs of trees. Olive, Olive Crown or Garland. Was a reward given among the Greeks to those who came off vic-torious at the Olympic games. Palisado or Vallary. Also termed Vallairie, Corona castrensis. It is given to those who first enter the entrenchment of an enemy. The term Vallary is derived from the Latin Vallum. The Crowns Ducal, Eastern, Mural, Naval, and Palisado, may be of any tincture and placed on the Helmet with or without a wreath. They are also very frequently placed on the heads, or round the necks of Crests and Supporters. Papal. See Tiara. Rue, of. The bend in the paternal arms of the Prince of Wales is so termed. Triumphal. Corona triumphalis; a wreath of laurel, which was given by the army to the imperator. He wore it on his head at the celebration of his triumph.

Crowned. When any animal has a crown or coronet on the head, it is said to be crowned, and if in blazon no particular crown is named it is always understood to be a Ducal Coronet.

Crownal. See Cronel.

Crownet. A coronet.

Croysys. Crosses.

Crozier. See Crosier.

Crucell or Crucellett. A cross crosslet.

Crucily, Crusuly or Crusilly. See Crusily.

Crucifix. A cross with the figure of Christ on it; borne by the family of Le-Poer.

Crusades. Expeditions undertaken from the end of the eleventh to the end of the thirteenth century to deliver the Holy Land from the Infidels who prevented the passage of pilgrims to the Holy Sepulchre. There is sufficient evidence that to them, we are indebted for the multitude of Crosses, Escallop shells, Byzants, etc., which are found in Heraldry. Owing to the variously coloured crosses, which the different nations who went on them assumed, they were called Croisades from Crux, or Croix, a Cross.

Crusily, Crucily, Crusilly, Crusule, Crusilee, Crusuly, Semée de croix or Semée of Crosses. Terms to express the field or any bearing when strewed or powdered over with crosses, without any regard to number.

Crutch. See Pilgrims Staff.

Crux. A cross.

Crwth. An ancient term for violin.

Crystal. A term used by some heralds instead of pearl, to express argent.

Cry of War. See Cri-de-guerre.

Cube. A regular solid body with six equal square sides, same as the dice without the ace.

Cubit-Arm. Is the hand and arm couped at the elbow. See Arm.

Cuff. Part of the sleeve.

Cuirass or Cuirasse. A piece of armour.

Cuisses, Cuissots or Cuisats. A covering of mail for the front of the thighs and knees.

Cullivers, Cullvers, Cuilliers or Cubboers. Same as Cuisses.

Culverin or Culverling. A short piece of ordinance, the same as Chamber-piece.

Cumbent. Same as Lodged.

Cup. Same as Chalice.

Cupe. Same as Couped.

Cupid. The Heathen God of Love; is represented as a naked winged boy, armed with a bow and quiver.

Cuppa. One of the furs ; composed of pieces of potent counter-potent, same as potent counter potent.

Cuppules. Bars-Gemell are sometimes termed bars-cuppules.

Cuppy, Varry Cuppa or Cuppy. Same as potent counter-potent.

Curlew. An aquatic bird.

Curling. Same as a snake coiled.

Curling-Stone. A flat round stone polished on the bottom, and having a handle in the upper side used in the game of Curling.

Current, Courant or Cursant. Terms applied to Deer, Greyhounds, etc., when running.

Curriers' Shaves. Paring knives.

Curry-Comb. A comb used for combing horses.

Curtana. The sword of Mercy.

Curtelasse. See Cutlass.

Curval or Curvant. Curved, or bowed.

Curved Recurved. The same as flexed reflexed, and bowed embowed; bent in the form of the letter S.

Curvi Linear. A curved line, such as a quadrant; the fourth part of a circle.

Cushat. The ring-dove.

Cushion Tasselled. Sometimes of a square form, and sometimes lozenge shaped.

Cut. The same as Sarcelled.

Cutlass. A sword.

Cutting Iron. A tool used by Patten-Makers and borne in their arms.

Cyanus. The corn-flower. Also termed a Blue-bottle.

Cyclas, Surcoat or Tabard. Was a sleeveless dress, long or short, and open at the sides, back or front, according to the fancy of the wearer. See Tabard.

Cygnet. A young swan. A Cygnet Royal; a Swan so termed when gorged with a Coronet and a chain affixed thereto.

Cygnus. A swan.

Cynkfoil. See Cinquefoil.

Cyphers. Initial letters variously intertwined. The Crest is generally placed above them. Cyphers, used at funerals of women, are small escutcheons of silk, or buckram, whereon are painted the initial letters of the deceased, placed within a bordure.

Cypress. A Tree.



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